Christian Fathers On The Nazarani

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The Christian Church Fathers provide us with some of the greatest testimony about the nature of what it means to be Nazarani. Although generally polemical, their writings tell us that Nazarani and Christians have always in parallel with one other for more than 1900 years.

Examining their viewpoint we can see the great lengths which the Christians are willing to travel to distance themselves from the Semitic faith of their Nazarani brethren. It is clear from their own words that everything Semitic was "bad" and everything Hellenic "good", and they were willing to murder millions of people to defend this view.


Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, (155 – 240 A.D.) was born at Carthage, in Libya, where he served as an lawyer before the Roman courts. He was also a philosopher, who wrote a great deal both before and after he converted to Christianity around the year 197 A.D. He was eventually ordained a priest within the metropolitan diocese of Carthage. He was also the first to refer to the Christian God as a "Trinity", and is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the Western Church". In his famous treatise Against Marcion he says that the Jews believed that the Nazarani were the same sect of Nazarites mentioned in Lamentations 4:7, and that it is "...for this reason the Jews call us 'Nazarenes'.[1]

Eusebius of Caesarea

The Greek historian Eusebius of Caesarea (Greek: Εὐσέβιος), who was sometimes also known as Eusebius Pamphili, lived from around 260–340 A.D., and was appointed as the bishop of Caesarea Maritima around 314 A.D.

Eusebius tells us that Yeshue was called a "Nazoraean", and that the followers of Yeshue were once called "Nazarenes".[2]

Epiphanius of Salamis

Epiphanius of Salamis (Greek: Ἐπιφάνιος; c. 310–403 A.D.) was a Cypriot bishop, and is a saint of the western church. He is most famous for writing the Panarion (Greek: Πανάριον) meaning "Medicine Chest", which is a compendium of various "heresies" of those who stood against the Byzantine Church. This is the same book which 16th-century Latin translators gave the name Adversus Haereses (Latin: "Against Heresies")

Epiphanius is supposed to have been born of Jewish parents and to have embraced Christianity when he was sixteen. A legend asserts that, before his conversion, Epiphanius was adopted by a rich Jew named Tryphon, who died soon afterward, leaving his fortune to Epiphanius. After passing four years in Egypt in a monastery, Epiphanius returned to his native village, founding a monastery of which he proclaimed himself abbot. In 367 he was elected Bishop of Constantia, in Cyprus, and became a zealous defender of the Byzantine Church, attaining celebrity on account of his opposition to Origen, whom he had personally condemned before two separate councils (399 and 401).

In the Panarion he says that the first Nazarani (Greek: Ναζωραιοι) were the actual disciples of the apostles [3] who left Jerusalem because of of Yeshue's prophecy about the First Jewish–Roman War (Hebrew: המרד הגדול‎‎) which raged from 66-73 A.D.[4]. He said that the "Nazarani who confess that Christ Jesus is Son of God, but all of whose customs are in accordance with the Law."[5] He also mentions the rshma saying, "They immerse themselves in water regularly, summer and winter for supposed purification, like the Samaritans."[6]

1:1 Next after these come the Nazoraeans, at the same time as they or even before them—either together with them or after them, in any case their contemporaries. I cannot say more precisely who succeeded whom. For, as I said, these were contemporary with each other, and had ideas similar to each other's.

1:2 For these people did not give themselves the name of Christ2 or Jesus' own name, but that of 'Nazoraeans.'

1:3 But at that time all Christians alike were called Nazoraeans. They also came to be called 'Jessaeans' for a short while, before the disciples began to be called Christians at Antioch.

1:4 But they were called Jessaeans because of Jesse, I suppose, since David was descended from Jesse and Mary was a lineal descendant of David. This was in fulfilment of sacred scripture, since in the Old Testament the Lord tells David, 'Of the fruit of thy belly shall I set upon thy throne.'

2:1 I am afraid of drawing the treatment of every expression out too long and so, though the truth moves me to touch on the considerations for contemplation in every expression, I give this note in brief, not to go to great length in giving the explanation.

2:2 Since the Lord said to David, 'Of the fruit of thy belly shall I set upon the throne,' and, 'The Lord sware unto David and will not repent,'[7] it is plain that God's promise is irrevocable.

2:3 In the first place, what does God have to swear by but 'By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord?'5—for 'God hath no oath by a greater.'[8] The divine does not swear, however, but the statement has the function of providing confirmation. For the Lord swore to David with an oath that he would set the fruit of his belly upon his throne.

2:4 And the apostles bear witness that Christ had to be born of David's seed, as our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ indeed was. I shall pass over the vast number of testimonies, in order, as I said, not to drag the discussion out to great length.

2:5 But probably someone might say, 'Since Christ was physically born of David's seed, that is, of the Holy Virgin Mary, why is he not sitting on David's throne? For the Gospel says, 'They came that they might anoint him king, and when Jesus perceived this he departed ... and hid himself in Ephraim, a city of the wilderness.' '[9]

2:6 But now that I have gotten to this passage and am asked about this text and the reason why the prophecy about sitting on David's throne has not been fulfilled physically in the Savior's case—for some have thought that it has not—I shall still say that it is a fact. No word of God's holy scripture comes to nothing.

3:1 For David's throne and kingly seat is the priesthood in the holy church. The Lord has combined this kingly and high priestly rank and conferred it on his holy church by transferring David's throne to it, never to fail.

3:2 In time past David's throne continued by succession until Christ himself, since the rulers from Judah did not fail until he came 'for whom are the things prepared, and he is the expectation of the nations,'[10] as scripture says.

3:3 For the rulers in succession from Judah came to an end with Christ's arrival. Until he came the rulers were anointed priests,[11] but after his birth in Bethlehem of Judea the order ended and was altered10 in the time of Alexander, a ruler of priestly and kingly stock.

3:4 This position died out with this Alexander from the time of Salina also known as Alexandra, in the time of King Herod and the Roman emperor Augustus. (Though this Alexander was crowned also, as one of the anointed priests and rulers.[12]

3:5 For when the two tribes, the kingly and priestly, were united—I mean the tribe of Judah with Aaron and the whole tribe of Levi—kings also became priests, for nothing hinted at in holy scripture can be wrong.)[13]

3:6 But then finally a gentile, King Herod, was crowned, and not David's descendants any more.

3:7 But with the transfer of the royal throne the rank of king passed, in Christ, from the physical house of David and Israel to the church.[14] The throne is established in God's holy church forever, and has both the kingly and the high-priestly rank for two reasons.

3:8 It has the kingly rank from our Lord Jesus Christ, in two ways: because he is physically descended from King David, and because he is in fact a greater king from all eternity in virtue of his Godhead. But it has the priestly rank because Christ himself is high priest and the founder of the office14 of the high priests

3:9 since James, who was called the Lord's brother and who was his apostle, was immediately15 made the first bishop.16 He was Joseph's son by birth, but was ranked as the Lord's brother because of their upbringing together.

4:1 For this James was Joseph's son by Joseph's first wife,[15] not by Mary, as I have said in many other places and dealt with more clearly for you.

4:2 And moreover I find that he was of Davidic descent because of being Joseph's son, and that he was born a Nazirite—for he was Joseph's first-born, and (thus) consecrated.[16] And I have found further that he also functioned as (high)-priest in the ancient priesthood.[17]

4:3 Thus he was permitted to enter the Holy of Holies once a year, as scripture says the Law directed the high priests to do. For many before me — Eusebius, Clement and others — have reported this of him.

4:4 He was allowed to wear the priestly tablet[18] besides, as the trustworthy authors I mentioned have testified in those same historical writings.

4:5 Now our Lord Jesus Christ, as I said, is 'priest forever after the order of Melchizedek,'[19] and at the same time hereditary king, so that he may transfer the priesthood along with the law giving.

4:6 And since David's seed, through Mary, is seated on the throne, his throne endures forever and of his kingdom there shall be no end. He should now transfer the order of the former kingship; for indeed his kingdom is not earthly, as he said to Pontius Pilate in the Gospel, 'My Kingdom is not of this world.'[20]

4:7 For since Christ brings to fulfillment[21] all the things (that have been said) in riddles, the preliminaries have reached a limit. For he who is always king did not come to achieve sovereignty. He granted the crown to those whom he appointed—lest it be thought that he advanced from a lower estate to a higher.

4:8 For his throne endures, of his kingdom there shall be no end, and he is seated on the throne of David and has transferred David's kingship and granted it, together with the high priesthood, to his own servants, the high priests of the catholic church.

4:9 And there is much to say about this. But in any case, since I have come to the topic of the reason why those who had come to faith in Christ were called Jessaeans before they were called Christians, we said that Jesse was the father of David. And they had been named Jessaeans, either because of this Jesse; or from the name or our Lord Jesus since, being his disciples, they were derived from Jesus; or because of the etymology of the Lord's name. For in Hebrew Jesus means 'healer' or 'physician,'[22] and 'savior.'

4:10 In any case, they had got this name before they were called Christians. But at Antioch, as I have mentioned before and as is the essence of the truth, the disciples and the whole church of God began to be called Christians.

5:126 If you enjoy study and have read the passage about them in Philo's historical writings, in his book entitled 'Jessaeans,' you can find that, in giving his account of their way of life and their hymns and describing their monasteries in the vicinity of the Marean marsh, Philo described none other than Christians.

5:2 For when he visited the area—the place is called Mareotis—and was entertained by them at their monasteries in the region, he was edified.

5:3 He arrived there during Passover and observed their customs, and how some of them put off (eating) throughout the holy week of Passover, though others ate every other day and others, indeed, each evening.[23] But all this has been written by Philo on the subject of the Christians' faith and regimen.

5:4 So when they were called Jessaeans then shortly after the Saviour's ascension and after Mark had preached in Egypt,[24] in those times certain other persons, supposed followers of the apostles, seceded in their turn. I mean the Nazoraeans, whom I am discussing here. They were Jewish, were attached to the Law, and had circumcision.

5:5 But it was as though people had seen fire under a misapprehension. Not understanding why, or for what use, the persons who had kindled this fire were doing it—either to cook their rations with the fire, or burn some dead trees and brush, which are usually destroyed by fire—they kindled fire too, in imitation, and set themselves ablaze.

5:6 For by hearing just Jesus' name, and seeing the miracles performed by the hands of the apostles, they came to faith in Jesus themselves. And since they found that he had been conceived at Nazareth and brought up in Joseph's home, and for this reason is called 'Jesus the Nazoraean' in the Gospel—as the apostles say, 'Jesus the Nazoraean, a man approved by signs and wonders,'[25] and so on—they adopted this name, so as to be called Nazoreans.

5:7 Not 'Nazirites'—that means 'consecrated persons.' Anciently this rank belonged to firstborn sons and men who had been dedicated to God. Samson was one, and others after him, and many before him. Moreover, John the Baptist too was one of these same persons who were consecrated to God, for 'He drank neither wine nor strong drink.'[26] (This regimen, an appropriate one for their rank, was prescribed for such persons.)

6:1 They did not call themselves Nasaraeans either; the sect of Nasaraeans was before Christ and did not know Christ.

6:2 But besides, as I have indicated, everyone called the Christians Nazoraeans, as they say in accusing Paul the apostle, 'We have found this man a pestilent fellow and a perverter of the people, a ring-leader of the sect of the Nazoraeans.'[27]

6:3 And the holy apostle did not disclaim the name - not to profess these people's heresy, but he was glad to own the name his adversaries' malice had applied to him for Christ's sake.

6:4 For he says in court, 'They neither found me in the temple disputing with any man, neither raising up the people, nor have I done any of those things whereof they accuse me. But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I, believing all things in the Law and the prophets.'[28]

6:5 And no wonder the apostle admitted to being a Nazoraean! In those days everyone called Christians this because of the city of Nazareth—there was no other usage of the name at the time. And so people gave the name of 'Nazoraeans' to believers in Christ, of whom it is written, 'because he shall be called a Nazoraean.'[29]

6:6 Even today in fact, people call all the sects, I mean Manichaeans, Marcionites, Gnostics and others, by the common name of 'Christians,' though they are not Christians. However, although each sect has another name, it still allows this one with pleasure, since the name is an ornament to it. For they think they can preen themselves on Christ's name—certainly not on Christ's faith and works!

6:7 Thus Christ's holy disciples too called themselves 'disciples of Jesus' then, as indeed they were. But when others called them Nazoraeans they did not reject it, being aware of the intent of those who were calling them that. They were calling them Nazoraeans because of Christ, since our Lord Jesus was called 'the Nazoraean' himself—as the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles say —

6:8 because of his upbringing in the city of Nazareth (now a village) in Joseph's home, after having been born in the flesh at Bethlehem, of the ever-virgin Mary, Joseph's betrothed. For Joseph had settled in Nazareth after leaving Bethlehem and taking up residence in Galilee.

7:1 But these same sectarians whom I am discussing here disregarded the name of Jesus, and neither called themselves Jessaeans, kept the name of Jews, nor termed themselves Christians—but 'Nazoraeans' supposedly from the name of the place 'Nazareth.' But they are Jews in every way and nothing else.

7:2 They use not only the New Testament but the Old Testament as well, as the Jews do. For they do not repudiate the legislation, the prophets, and the books which are called Writings by the Jews and by themselves. They have no different views but confess everything in full accord with the doctrine of the Law and like the Jews, except that they are supposedly believers in Christ.

7:3 For they acknowledge both the resurrection of the dead and that all things have been created by God,[30] and they declare that God is one, and that his Son is Jesus Christ.

7:4 They are perfectly versed in the Hebrew language, for the entire Law, the prophets, and the so-called Writings—I mean the poetic books, Kings, Chronicles, Esther and all the rest—are read in Hebrew among them, as of course they are among the Jews.

7:5 They are different from Jews, and different from Christians, only in the following ways. They disagree with Jews because of their belief in Christ; but they are not in accord with Christians because they are still fettered by the Law—circumcision, the Sabbath, and the rest.[31]

7:6 As to Christ, I cannot say whether they too are misled by the wickedness of Cerinthus and Merinthus, and regard him as a mere man—or whether, as the truth is, they affirm that he was born of Mary by the Holy Spirit.

7:7 This sect of Nazoraeans is to be found in Beroea37 near Coelesyria, in the Decapolis near Pella, and in Bashanitis at the place called Cocabe — Khokhabe in Hebrew.

7:8 For that was its place of origin, since all the disciples had settled in Pella after their remove from Jerusalem—Christ having told them to abandon Jerusalem and withdraw from it because of the siege it was about to undergo. And they settled in Peraea for this reason and, as I said, lived their lives there. It was from this that the Nazoraean sect had its origin.

8:1 But they too are wrong to boast of circumcision, and persons like themselves are still 'under a curse,'[32] since they cannot fulfill the Law. For how will they be able to fulfill the Law's provision, 'Thrice a year thou shalt appear before the Lord thy God, at the feasts of Unleavened Bread, Tabernacles and Pentecost,'[33] on the site of Jerusalem?

8:2 For since the site is closed off,[34] and the Law's provisions cannot be fulfilled, it must be plain to anyone with sense that Christ came to be the fulfiller of the Law—not to destroy the Law but to fulfil the Law—and to lift the curse that had been pronounced on transgression of the Law.

8:3 For after Moses had given every commandment he came to the end of the book and 'included the whole in a curse'[35] by saying, 'Cursed is he that continueth not in all the words that are written in this book to do them.'[36]

8:4 Hence Christ came to free what had been fettered with the bonds of the curse by granting us, in place of the lesser commandments which cannot be fulfilled, ones which are greater and which are not inconsistent with the completion of the task as the former ones were.

8:5 For often in every Sect, when I reached the point, I have explained in connection with the Sabbath, circumcision and the rest, how the Lord has granted us something more perfect.

8:6 But how can people like these be defensible since they have not obeyed the Holy Spirit who said through the apostles to gentile converts, 'Assume no burden save the necessary things, that ye abstain from blood, and from things strangled, and fornication, and from meats offered to idols?'[37]

8:7 And how can they fail to lose the grace of God, when the holy apostle Paul says, 'If ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing .... whosoever of you do glory in the Law are fallen from grace?'[38]

9:1 In this Sect too, my brief discussion will be sufficient. People of their kind are refutable at once and easy to detect and, rather (than being heretical Christians), are Jews and nothing else.

9:2 Yet to the Jews they are very much enemies. Not only do Jewish people bear hatred against them; they even stand up at dawn, at midday, and toward evening, three times a day when they recite their prayers in the synagogues, and curse and anathematize them—saying three times a day, 'God curse the Nazoraeans!'[39]

9:3 For they harbour a further grudge against them, if you please, because despite their Jewish origin, they preach that Jesus is the Christ—something that is the opposite of those who are still Jews and have not accepted Jesus.

9:4 They have the Gospel according to Matthew in its entirety in Hebrew.48 For it is clear that they still preserve this as it was originally written, in the Hebrew alphabet. But I do not know whether they have also excised the genealogies from Abraham till Christ.

9:5 But now that we have also detected this sect—like a stinging insect that is small, and yet causes pain with its poison—and have squashed it with the words of the truth, let us go on to the next, beloved, praying for help from God.[40]


Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus, (a.k.a. "Jerome") was an Italian father of the church who lived from 347 to 420 A.D. He described the Nazarani living in his time, asking:

What shall I say of the Ebionites who pretend to be Christians? To-day there still exists among the Jews in all the synagogues of the East a heresy which is called that of the Minæans, and which is still condemned by the Pharisees; [its followers] are ordinarily called 'Nazarani'; they believe that Christ, the son of God, was born of the Virgin Mary, and they hold him to be the one who suffered under Pontius Pilate and ascended to heaven, and in whom we also believe. But while they pretend to be both Jews and Christians, they are neither.[41]

Jerome repeats Augustine, saying of the Nazarani:

Since the preaching of the gospel of Christ, the believing Jews do well in observing the precepts of the law, i.e. in offering sacrifices as Paul did, in circumcising their children, as Paul did in the case of Timothy, and keeping the Jewish Sabbath, as all the Jews have been accustomed to do. ... though believing in Christ, [they] were anathematized by the [church] fathers for this one error, that they mixed up the ceremonies of the law with the gospel of Christ, and professed their faith in that which was new, without letting go what was old.[42]

In other words Augustine and Jerome tell us that the Nazarani doctrine that the Torah should still be observed began with “the preaching of Christ” and was the doctrine kept by Paul, but that the church fathers” of Christianity declared this to be an error and a heresy. But then he goes on to make the following admission:

13. The matter in debate, therefore, or I should rather say your opinion regarding it, is summed up in this: that since the preaching of the gospel of Christ, the believing Jews do well in observing the precepts of the law, i.e. in offering sacrifices as Paul did, in circumcising their children, as Paul did in the case of Timothy, and keeping the Jewish Sabbath, as all the Jews have been accustomed to do. If this be true, we fall into the heresy of Cerinthus and Ebion, who, though believing in Christ, were anathematized by the fathers for this one error, that they mixed up the ceremonies of the law with the gospel of Christ, and professed their faith in that which was new, without letting go what was old. Why do I speak of the Ebionites, who make pretensions to the name of Christian? In our own day there exists a sect among the Jews throughout all the synagogues of the East, which is called the sect of the Minei, and is even now condemned by the Pharisees. The adherents to this sect are known commonly as Nazarani; they believe in Christ the Son of God, born of the Virgin Mary; and they say that He who suffered under Pontius Pilate and rose again, is the same as the one in whom we believe. But while they desire to be both Jews and Christians, they are neither the one nor the other. I therefore beseech you, who think that you are called upon to heal my slight wound, which is no more, so to speak, than a prick or scratch from a needle, to devote your skill in the healing art to this grievous wound, which has been opened by a spear driven home with the impetus of a javelin. For there is surely no proportion between the culpability of him who exhibits the various opinions held by the fathers in a commentary on Scripture, and the guilt of him who reintroduces within the Church a most pestilential heresy. If, however, there is for us no alternative but to receive the Jews into the Church, along with the usages prescribed by their law; if, in short, it shall be declared lawful for them to continue in the Churches of Christ what they have been accustomed to practice in the synagogues of Satan, I will tell you my opinion of the matter: they will not become Christians, but they will make us Jews.
14. For what Christian will submit to hear what is said in your letter? Paul was indeed a Jew; and when he had become a Christian, he had not abandoned those Jewish sacraments which that people had received in the right way, and for a certain appointed time. Therefore, even when he was an apostle of Christ, he took part in observing these; but with this view, that he might show that they were in no wise hurtful to those who, even after they had believed in Christ, desired to retain the ceremonies which by the law they had learned from their fathers. Now I implore you to hear patiently my complaint. Paul, even when he was an apostle of Christ, observed Jewish ceremonies; and you affirm that they are in no wise hurtful to those who wish to retain them as they had received them from their fathers by the law. I, on the contrary, shall maintain, and, though the world were to protest against my view, I may boldly declare that the Jewish ceremonies are to Christians both hurtful and fatal; and that whoever observes them, whether he be Jew or Gentile originally, is cast into the pit of perdition. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believes, Romans 10:4 that is, to both Jew and Gentile; for if the Jew be excepted, He is not the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believes. Moreover, we read in the Gospel, The law and the prophets were until John the Baptist. Also, in another place: Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill Him, because He had not only broken the Sabbath, but said also that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God. John 5:18 Again: Of His fullness have all we received, and grace for grace; for the law was given Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. John 1:16-17 Instead of the grace of the law which has passed away, we have received the grace of the gospel which is abiding; and instead of the shadows and types of the old dispensation, the truth has come by Jesus Christ. Jeremiah also prophesied thus in God's name: Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt. Jeremiah 31:31-32 Observe what the prophet says, not to Gentiles, who had not been partakers in any former covenant, but to the Jewish nation. He who has given them the law by Moses, promises in place of it the new covenant of the gospel, that they might no longer live in the oldness of the letter, but in the newness of the spirit. Paul himself, moreover, in connection with whom the discussion of this question has arisen, delivers such sentiments as these frequently, of which I subjoin only a few, as I desire to be brief: Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if you be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. Again: Christ has become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; you are fallen from grace. Again: If you be led of the Spirit, you are not under the law. From which it is evident that he has not the Holy Spirit who submits to the law, not, as our fathers affirmed the apostles to have done, feignedly, under the promptings of a wise discretion, but, as you suppose to have been the case, sincerely. As to the quality of these legal precepts, let us learn from God's own teaching: I gave them, He says, statutes that were not good, and judgments whereby they should not live. Ezekiel 20:25 I say these things, not that I may, like Manichæus and Marcion, destroy the law, which I know on the testimony of the apostle to be both holy and spiritual; but because when faith came, and the fullness of times, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons, Galatians 4:4 and might live no longer under the law as our schoolmaster, but under the Heir, who has now attained to full age, and is Lord. [43]

Byzantine Church

This theme of hate continued on into the fifth century, with the Byzantine Church in Constantinople going so far as to violating their own prescriptions against adding or subtracting from The Symbol of Faith, when they added the following text to their baptismal creed:

I renounce all customs, rites, legalisms, unleavened breads and sacrificial lambs of the Hebrews, and all other feasts of the Hebrews, sacrifices, prayers, aspersions, purifications, sanctifications and propitiations and fasts, and new moons, and Sabbaths, and superstitions, and hymns and chants and observances and Synagogues, and the food and drink of the Hebrews; in one word, I renounce everything Jewish, every law, rite and custom and if afterwards I shall wish to deny and return to Jewish superstition, or shall be found eating with the Jews, or feasting with them, or secretly conversing and condemning the Christian religion instead of openly confuting them and condemning their vain faith, then let the trembling of Gehazi cleave to me, as well as the legal punishments to which I acknowledge myself liable. And may I be anathema in the world to come, and may my soul be set down with Satan and the devils.[44]


In the end, the ease with which we may now access information is making it possible for regular people to finally piece together the true history of the Nazarani Church as it existed since the time of Yeshue. For those who have ears to hear, may now hear the truth, as Yeshue preached it, in His own Aramaic language.

As Nazarani, we should thank the fathers of the Orthodox and Catholic churches for their hate-filled, polemical rants about "heretics", because, without these, the greatest episode in the history of our collective faith may have been lost to the ravages of time. It is only because they wrote about us that we are able to know the truth.


  1. Against Marcion 4:8
  2. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies: Volume 65, Issue 1 University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies - 2002
  3. Panarion 29:5:6
  4. Panarion 29.3.3
  5. Panarion 3:2 29
  6. Panarion 5:3:6
  7. See: Psalm 109:4
  8. Cross Reference: Hebrews 6:13
  9. John 6:15, 11:54
  10. Genesis 49:10
  11. See also: Jerome's Chronicles 160,16-17
  12. See also: Jerome's Chronicles 148,11-14
  13. καταγνοὺς οῦν τοῦ Σαοὺλ καὶ βουλόμενος τῷ Δαυὶδ τὰ τῆς ἀρχῆς καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ φυλᾶξαι τὴν βασιλείαν διὰ τὸν ἐξ αὐτοῦ τεχθησόμενον κατὰ σάρκα βασιλέα τῆς κτίσεως ἁπάσης
  14. Justin Apol. 32.1-3; Dial. 11.4; 52.2-4; 120.3-5; 126.1; Iren. 4.10.2; Eus. H. E. 1.6.1-2; 4; 8; Demonstratio 7
  15. Cross reference: Jerome Vir. Ill. 2
  16. Euseubius, Against Heretics 2.23.5
  17. Euseubius, Against Heretics 2.23
  18. Eusebius says this of John in Against Heresies 3.31.3
  19. Hebrews 5:6
  20. John 18:36
  21. Such as in Hebrews 3:5
  22. 'Healer' or 'physician' might be what Epiph, with his knowledge of Hebrew and Aramaic, makes of θεραπευταί. See below and cf. Eusebius H. E. 2.17.3 ἤτoι παρὰ τὸ τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν πρoσιόντων αὐτoῖς τῶν ἀπὸ κακίας παθῶν ἰατρῶv δίκηv ... θεραπεύειv.
  23. Eusebius, Against Heretics 2:17:8
  24. Eusebius Against Heretics 16:1-17:1
  25. Acts 2:22
  26. Luke 1:15
  27. Acts 24:5
  28. Acts 24:12-14
  29. Matthew 2:23
  30. See also: Irenaeus 1.26.2. and Hippolytus' Refutation of Heresies 7.34.1
  31. Cross Reference: Iren. 1.26.2 (of the Ebionites); Eus. H. E. 3,27.3.
  32. Galatians 3:10
  33. Cross reference Galatians 3:22.
  34. Justin Martyr, Apologia I 47È5-6
  35. Cross reference: Galatians 3:22.
  36. Galatians 3:10, Deuteronomy 27:26
  37. Acts 15:28-29
  38. Galatians 5:2-4
  39. Some variation of the prayer, 'For the apostates let there be no hope, and let the rule of wickedness be uprooted swiftly, in our days, and let the notsrim ( נצרים , Christians) and sectarians (מינים) perish in an instant,' etc. is found in the great majority of the liturgical MSS of the Cairo Genizah See Pourkier, and especially Ehrlich and Langer, 'Earliest Texts,' pp. 63-112. For Christian references to the prayer, see Justin Dial. 16; 47; Jer. In Isa 5:18-19 (Adriaen, CC 73 p. 76); Orig. Cels. 2.29., 29.48 Cf. Eus. H. E. 3.24.6; 39.16; 5.10.3; Theophania 4.12; Jer. Vir. Ill. 3; C. Pelag. 3.2. The Ebionites are said to use the Gospel according to Matthew and none other at Iren. 1.26.2; Eus. H. E. 3.27.4.
  40. Panarion 29
  41. Samuel Krauss, Nazarenes, Executive Committee of the Editorial Board of the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906),
  42. Jerome Letter to Augustine, 75
  43. Jerome's Letter to Augustine 75:13-14, from 404 A.D.
  44. James Parks (1974), The Conflict of The Church and The Synagogue, New York: Atheneum, pp. 397–98.